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 GRADE12 生物笔记

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帖子主题: GRADE12 生物笔记   2014-02-25, 7:26 pm

第一单元:细胞,基因,mitosis,miosis,繁殖
Notes:
Cell must reproduce,when:
1.when they get too large.
2.to replace old or injured cells.
*normally reproduced themselves by *** an exact copies of themselves.
Mitosis和Miosis老师会发一个package.下面不需要记,但得背下来,prophase, metaphase, telophase之类的第一单元考试会考。
Mitosis Notes: The three main stages of the cell cycle are:interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
Stage1: interphase,the cell grows, matures, fuctions and makes proteins that will be needed in mitosis.

Heredity: is the passing on of traits, the science that deals with heredity is called genetics.

D=Greger Mendel:
1) Elements are passed on from a parents to its offspring
2) different elements control different traits
3) Elements don't change during lifetime of organism
4) Elements are passed on in the same form in which they were inherited from parents. Elements are contained in the reproductive cells.

*same=pure breed=true=homo
  different=hybrid=heteral

Punnet Square [4 marks, write it's statement if it's 5]punnet Square在第一单元及Final Exam里都会考,一般占4分,如果是5分题需要写结论。
下面是Punnet Square 的步骤。
1, state the genotype for each parents.
2, compare the punnet square.
3, list  all possible genotype and phenoypes with percentages.
4. Answer questions if needed.

Medel Law**********很重要
1) Law of unit character
-units in the cell were responsible for traits (now called genes)
-these units come in pairs.
-each offspring received one of twounits from each of the parents
-alternate forms of the genes ecsits (called allels)
2) Law of dominance
-If the two allels inherited by an offspring differ, then one will be fully expresses in the appearence of the offspring and the other will be hidden and have no effect on the appearence of the offspring.
3) Law of segregations
-for each individual has two allels of each gene and when gametes are produced, each gamete receives only one of these alleles from each parents
-for each of these characters and organisms inherits 2 allels.
4) Law od independent assortment
-one traitdoesn't affect the inheritance of another.Therefore, each chromosomes goes into an egg or sperm independently of every other. Meaning being a male doesn't make you tall.
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